Section 1               Legislated Duties and Responsibilities

  • Duties of Certified Members
  • Authority to Stop Work
  • Work Refusal Procedure
  • Committee Responsibilities

Section 2               Terms of Reference

Section 3               JOINT HEALTH & Safety Program

  • Procedure for Submitting Recommendation
  • Employers Response to Recommendation

Section 4               Accident Investigations

Section 5               Workplace Inspection Program


Duties & Responsibilities of Joint Health & Safety Committees:

Refers to Section 9 of the Act


ABC Company, as required under the “ACT”, will ensure we have a Joint Health and Safety Committee in place, at least one worker member and one management member is certified and all requirements under Section 9 of the “ACT” are complied with. To achieve this we have included a Joint Health and Committee Program in our Health and Safety Manual.

Responsibilities of our joint health and committee

Identify Workplace Hazards

  • The main purpose of the committee is to identify workplace hazards, such as machinery, substances, production processes, working conditions, procedures or anything else that can endanger the health and safety of our workers (Section 9(18)(a)).
  • The members of the committee who represent workers must choose one of their group to inspect the workplace. This member does not always have to be the same person but should be, if possible, a ‘certified’ committee member (Section 9(23) and (24)).
  • The workplace will be inspected at least once a month.
  • The committee member who performs the inspection must report to the committee any real or potential hazard facing workers.
  • The committee must consider this information within a reasonable period of time (Section 9(30)).

Obtain Information From The Employer

The committee has the power to obtain information from the employer:

  • About any existing or potential hazards in the workplace (Section 9(18)(d)(i));
  • About the health and safety experience and work practices and standards in other workplaces of which the employer is aware (Section 9(18)(d)(ii)); and
  • About any workplace testing that is being carried out for occupational health and safety purposes (Section 9(18)(e)). In addition, the committee has the right to be consulted about any workplace testing and to have a committee member representing workers present at the beginning of the testing to validate the procedures and/or the results (Section 9(18)(f)).

Make Recommendations to the Employer

The committee has the power to make recommendations to the employer and to the workers on ways to improve workplace health and safety. (Sections 9(18)(b) and (c)).

Investigate Work Refusals

The committee members who represent workers must designate one of their group to be present at the investigation of a work refusal. (Section 43(4)(a)).

The employer must respond to a committee recommendation within 21 days.

Investigate Serious Accidents

If a worker is killed or critically injured on the job, the accident is investigated.  The members of the committee who represent workers shall choose one or more of their group to conduct such an investigation (Section 9(31)).

Obtain Information from the Workplace Safety & Insurance Board

At the committee’s request, the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board must provide an annual summary of information about compensation claims relating to all workplaces of the employer in Ontario (Section 12(1)).  This information must include:

  • Number of fatalities.
  • Number of lost-time injuries.
  • Number of workdays lost.
  • Number of injuries requiring medical aid but that did not involve lost workdays.
  • Incidence of occupational illnesses and number of occupational injuries.  The WSIB can include any other information it considers necessary.


Duties & Responsibilities of Certified Members

A certified member is a worker or management JHSC member who, because of special training has been certified by law.  Certified members are entitled to exercise certain rights and powers such as:

  • Where possible, the certified member who represents workers should conduct the monthly workplace inspections (Section 9(24)). He or she should also be present, if possible, at the investigation of a work refusal. (Section 43 (4)(a)
  • A certified member who receives a complaint that dangerous circumstances exist is entitled to investigate the complaint (Section 48(1)).
  • Certified members also have the right, under certain circumstances, to order the employer to stop work that is dangerous to a worker. (Section 45 (1))

A worker certified member may be selected by the worker members to carry out inspections, investigate a fatality or critical injury, or attend a work refusal investigation.

Under certain circumstances a certified member may interact with a MOL inspector or Ontario Labour Relations Board.  These may include:

  • An inspection by a MOL inspector.
  • An accident investigation.
  • Work stoppage.
  • Work refusal.
  • Appeals.

Authority to Stop Work


The Occupational Health and Safety Act allows dangerous work to be stopped.

In most cases, it takes two certified members to direct an employer to stop dangerous work (joint stoppage). One must be a certified member representing workers; the other, a certified member representing the employer. In some special cases, a single certified member may have this right. This section explains how and when work can be stopped


Dangerous Circumstances

Work can be stopped only in ‘dangerous circumstances’ (Section 44(1)).

This means a situation in which all of the following are true:

  • the Act or the regulations are being violated; and
  • the violation poses a danger or a hazard to a worker; and
  • any delay in controlling the danger or hazard may seriously endanger a worker.


Joint Right to Stop Work:

If a certified member has reason to believe that dangerous circumstances exist, he or she may ask a supervisor to investigate. The supervisor must do so promptly and in the presence of the certified member who made the request. This certified member may be one representing either the workers or the employer (Section 45(1)).

If the certified member believes that dangerous circumstances still exist, he or she may ask another certified member to investigate (Section 45(2)). The second certified

member must do so promptly and in the presence of the first certified member (Section 45(3)).

The second certified member must represent the other workplace party. For example, if the first certified member represents workers, the second must represent the employer.

 In prescribed instances, a certified member who represents the employer but who is not available at the workplace may designate another person to act for him or her in a situation involving dangerous circumstances (Section 45(9)).

What happens if both certified members agree that dangerous circumstances exist?

The certified members can direct the employer to stop the work or to stop using any part of the workplace or any equipment, machinery, tools, etc. (Section 45(4)).

The employer must do so immediately, in a way that does not endanger anyone (Section 45(5)).

After taking steps to remedy the dangerous circumstances, the employer can request the certified members who issued the stop-work direction, or an inspector, to cancel it (Section 45(7)). Only the certified members who issued the direction can jointly cancel it, unless a ministry inspector cancels it (Section 45(8)).

What if the certified members do not agree with each other that dangerous circumstances exist?

If the certified members disagree, work cannot be stopped. However, either certified member may ask a ministry inspector to investigate. Following the investigation, the inspector will give a written decision to both certified members (Section 45(6)).

Individual Right to Stop Work:

The Act permits an individual certified member, in special cases, to stop work in dangerous circumstances. This individual right to stop work is granted by an official known as the health and safety adjudicator.

Application to the Adjudicator:

If any certified member in the workplace, or a ministry inspector has reason to believe that the joint right to stop work will not be sufficient to protect the workers from serious risk to their health or safety, he or she may apply to the adjudicator for a declaration against the employer (Section 46(1)).

Any person applying to the adjudicator must notify both the employer and a director of the Ministry of Labour, in writing (Section 46(2)).

At any time after the application has been made, the minister may appoint an inspector to try to reach a settlement between the applicant and the employer (Section 46(4)).

Role of the Adjudicator:

The adjudicator must determine if the employer has failed to protect the health and safety of workers. In making a finding, the adjudicator is guided by criteria that are prescribed in a regulation (Section 46(6)).

If the adjudicator finds that the procedure for joint stoppage of dangerous work is not sufficient to protect the workers, he or she may do one or both of the following:

  • Declare that the employer is subject to the procedure for individual stoppage of dangerous work (explained below) for a specified period (Section 46(5)(a)); and/or
  • Recommend to the minister that an inspector be assigned, for a specified period, to oversee the health and safety practices of the employer. The inspector can be assigned on a part-time or full-time basis (Section 46(5)(b)). If an inspector is assigned to a workplace, the employer must reimburse the government for the wages, benefits and expenses of the inspector (Section 46(8)).

The decision of the adjudicator on an application is final (Section 46(7)).

Procedure for the Individual Right to Stop Unsafe Work:

This procedure applies to an employer against whom the adjudicator has issued a declaration. It also applies to an employer who has advised the joint committee, in writing, that he or she voluntarily adopts the following procedure (Section 47(1)).

If a certified member finds that dangerous circumstances exist, he or she can direct the employer to stop work or to stop using any part of the workplace or any equipment, machinery, tools, etc. (Section 47(2)).   The employer must do so immediately, in a way that does not endanger anyone (Section 47(3)).   After stopping the work, the employer must promptly investigate, in the presence of the certified member (Section 47(4)).

After taking steps to remedy the dangerous circumstances, the employer can ask the certified member, or an inspector, to cancel the direction (Section 47(6)). 

In such a case, either party may ask an inspector to investigate. After conducting the investigation, the inspector will issue a written decision (Section 47(5)).

Either the certified member or an inspector can cancel a stop-work direction (Section 47(7)).

STOP Work If - Unsure, Unsafe, Concerned
Please Sign
Flowchart: Alternate Process: RETURN TO WORK

The Right to Refuse Unsafe Work

Section 43 of the Act


The Occupational Health and Safety Act gives a worker the right to refuse work that he or she believes is unsafe.

The Act sets out a specific procedure that must be followed in a work refusal.  It is important that workers, employers, supervisors and health and safety representatives understand this procedure.


The worker must immediately tell the supervisor or employer that the work is being refused and explain why (Section 43(4)).

The supervisor or employer must investigate the situation immediately, in the presence of the worker and one of the following:

  • A joint committee member who represents workers, if there is one.  If possible, this should be a certified member; or
  • A health and safety representative, in workplaces where there is no joint committee; or
  • Another worker, who, because of knowledge, experience and training, has been chosen by the workers (or by the union) to represent them. The refusing worker must remain in a safe place near the workstation until the investigation is completed (Section 43(5)). This interval is known as the ‘first stage’ of a work refusal. If the situation is resolved at this point, the worker will return to work. 

The worker can continue to refuse the work if he or she has reasonable grounds for believing that the work continues to be unsafe (Section 43(6)). At this point, the ‘second stage’ of a work refusal begins.

NOTE: Reasonable grounds” for continuing to refuse means that the worker has some objective information that makes him or her believe the work is still unsafe. The worker does not have to be correct in his or her knowledge or belief. For example, the refusing worker may have been told by other workers who have used a electrical piece of equipment that it sometimes sparks for no reason.

The worker, the employer or someone acting on behalf of either the worker or employer must notify a Ministry of Labour inspector. (Section 43(6)).

While waiting for the inspector, the worker must remain in a safe place near the work station, unless the employer assigns some other reasonable work during normal working hours. If no such work exists, the employer can give other directions to the worker. If the worker is covered by a collective agreement, any provision in it that covers this situation will apply (Section 43(10)).

The inspector must decide whether the work is likely to endanger the worker or another person. The inspector’s decision must be given, in writing, to the worker, the employer, and the worker representative, if there is one. If the inspector finds that the work is not likely to endanger anyone, the refusing worker is expected to return to work (Sections 43(8) and (9)).

While waiting for the inspector to investigate and give a decision on the refusal, the employer or supervisor can ask another worker to do the work that was refused. The second worker must be told that the work was refused and why. This must be done in the presence of a committee member who represents workers, or a health and safety representative, or a worker representative chosen because of knowledge, experience and training (Sections 43(11) and (12)).   The second worker has the same right to refuse as the first worker.

Although the Act does not cover this point, the Ontario Labour Relations Board has ruled that a refusing worker is considered to be at work during the first stage of a work refusal and is entitled to be paid at his or her appropriate rate.   A person acting as a worker representative during a work refusal is paid at either the regular or the premium rate; whichever is applicable (Section 43(13)).

A worker has the duty to work in accordance with the Act and the regulations and has the right to seek their enforcement. The employer is not allowed to penalize, dismiss, discipline, suspend or threaten to do any of these things to a worker who has obeyed the law (Section 50(1)). This also applies if a worker has given evidence at an inquest or a prosecution under the Act or the regulations.

However, this provision does not apply if the work refusal was made in bad faith, or if the worker continues to refuse after the Ministry of Labour inspector finds that the work is not likely to endanger the worker.

Note: Recent changes to Bill 70 allows the Inspectors to resolve work refusals in consultation with workplace parties and does not necessarily require the Inspector to enter the workplace.  Section 43(7) OHSA.


Resolution is reached.  
Employee remains in a safe place.  
Is matter remedied/resolved?  
Supervisor immediately investigates the matter.  


Flowchart: Alternate Process: Employee believes that work, activity or condition would result in unsafe work.UNSAFE WORK


Flowchart: Alternate Process: Employee returns to work.

Management involvement


  1. To create and maintain an active interest in safety and health and to reduce accidents.
  2. To help stimulate an awareness of safety issues and to create an atmosphere of co-operation between management and workers.

Management Responsibility                  

It is the responsibility of the ABC Company owners to ensure that a joint health and safety committee is formed, structured and functioning in the appropriate manner, and that the names of the members are prominently posted in the workplace. 

Management agrees to provide assistance and cooperation to the committee and ensures that recommendations made by the Joint Health & Safety Committee will be addressed at the management level.  ABC Company will provide access to pertinent resource information to the committee.  This information will include but not be limited to:

  • Notification of injury or occupational disease.
  • Information on potentially hazardous materials/processes. 
  • Reports on health and safety.
  • Health & safety statistics.


  • Obtain information from the employer on potential or existing hazards, accident data/trends, occupational disease, hygiene reports, etc.
  • Perform thorough accident investigations to properly identify root cause(s), so that corrective action can be taken and necessary improvements made.
  • Conduct accident/illness information analysis.
  • Participate in work refusal situations. 
  • Make recommendations to the employer on improvements to the health & safety program.
  • Accompany a Ministry of Labour Inspector during a ministry inspection of the workplace.
  • Keep current with respect to occupational health and safety issues, trends and advancements including changes in legislation.




  1. It is a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Act to establish a policy that could encourage the active participation of all employees in the prevention of accidents and the promotion of Health and Safety in the workplace.
  • ABC Company and their Joint Health and Safety Committee in the workplace have established a Committee under the Occupational Health & Safety Act and have reached an understanding as to the guidelines for the composition, practice and procedure thereof.
  • The parties acknowledged that a Joint Health and Safety Program can only be successful where everyone in the workplace is committed to these responsibilities.  Therefore, the parties undertake to cooperate in ensuring that these guidelines and the full intent of the Occupational Health & Safety Act (“the Act”) will be carried out by their respective organizations.
  • The parties hereto adopt these GUIDELINES in good faith and agree to promote and assist the Joint Health and Safety Committee Members by providing such information, training and assistance as may reasonably be required for the purpose of carrying out their responsibilities.


Summary of our Terms of Reference

1.            Meeting Frequency – We will meet Monthly.

2.            Committee Size – 4 members – 2 Management, 2 Worker Members.

3.            Quorum – At least 2 members of the Committee. The number of Management representatives must not exceed the number of worker members.

  • Length of Term – No defined limit.
  • Co-Chairs Elected by Committee:

1 Worker Representative.

1 Management Representative.

  • Minimum Certified Members Required:

1 Worker Member.

1 Management Member.

  • Decision Making will be by consensus.
  • Duties of Committee:
  • Attend meetings.
  • Participate in hazard assessments.
  • Review and conduct workplace inspections.
  • Report concerns of workers on safety issues to Committee and Management.
  • Review Health and Safety Policies and Procedures of the Company.
  • Make recommendations for improvements in workplace Health and Safety to the employer.
  1. The Joint Health and Safety Committee (referred to hereafter as “The Joint Committee”) shall consist of at least four (4) members: two (2) members selected by the employer and two (2) members selected by the Workers.  We shall at all times attempt to maintain more than the minimum requirement.  Alternates may be allowed, however, they shall only be used in emergency conditions and with the approval of the co-chairpersons.  Each party will supply a listing of 1 alternate.
  1. The members for the employer will be chosen by the employer. The workers of the company will elect the JHSC members for the workers.  If a worker representative is required, a notice will be posted indicating the need for a worker representative of the JHSC.  If more than one worker is interested in the position, a vote will be held by the workers, to determine who will assume the position.  The same process will apply when appointing additional members of the JHSC.
  1. The Joint Committee shall meet on a regularly established schedule as follows:  The first Tuesday every month.  (The co-chairpersons will approve changes.)
  1. There shall be 2 co-chairpersons, 1 from the employer and 1 from the worker appointed that shall alternate the chair at meetings.
  1. A co-chairperson may, with the consent and approval of his/her counterpart, invite any additional person(s) to attend the meeting to provide additional information and comment, but they shall not participate in the regular business of the meeting.
  1. The Joint Committee shall have a minimum of at least 2 specifically trained members, 1 representing workers and 1 representing management.  Certified members shall have the power to make a mutual decision to stop work that they consider to be dangerous to the Health and Safety of workers.

This section of “The Act” will not be applicable until the necessary training program is established and approved by the Ministry of Labour.

Functions of the Committee

  • To attain the spirit of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, the functions of the Joint Committee shall be:
  • To identify, evaluate and recommend a resolution of all matters pertaining to Health and Safety in the workplace to appropriate senior management.
  • To encourage adequate education and training programs in order that all employees are knowledgeable in their rights, restrictions, responsibilities and duties under the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
  • The Joint Committee will address matters related to all regulations, designated substances and WHMIS, where applicable.
  • To deal with any matter that the Committee deems appropriate.


2.2       The Joint Committee members who represent workers shall designate one of the members representing workers to inspect the physical condition of the workplace.  Where and when possible, a management person shall accompany the worker representative.  The workplace shall be inspected on the first Tuesday of every month. 

  • All health and safety concerns raised during the physical inspection will be recorded on an appropriate workplace inspection form and signed by member(s) performing the inspection.  (Sample Attached).
  • The workplace inspection form will be forwarded to the Joint Committee and to Management representative within 2 days of the workplace inspection.  Senior Management will inform the Committee of the status of the outstanding items by the next Committee meeting.
  • When performing workplace inspections, JHSC workers members will engage workers in discussions regarding any concerns they wish to bring to their attention. These contacts will be documented on the workplace inspections form.

Recommendations of the Joint Committee

2.6       The JHSC will make recommendations (in writing) to the employer for those items that require approval prior to implementation. The employer or his designate shall respond within 21 days with regard to written or “minuted” committee recommendations.  The written response shall indicate the employer’s assessment of the committee recommendation and specify what action will or will not (with explanations) be implemented as a result of the recommendation.  Any proposed action by the employer shall include details of who will be responsible for such action and a proposed time.


2.7       The Joint Committee will designate members and alternates; if required, chosen by those they represent, to investigate all serious workplace accidents and incidents that have the potential for a serious accident.  The inspection team will be responsible for overseeing that the requirements prescribed in Sections 51 and 52 of the Act and Sections 5 and 6 of the Regulations for Industrial Establishments are carried out.

2.8  The Joint Health and Safety Committee will designate 2 members and/or alternates; if required, chosen by those they represent, to accompany the Ministry of Labour Inspector, while carrying out Ministry inspection of the workplace.  The names of those safety reps who will accompany MOL inspectors will be posted on our health and safety notice board.

2.9     The members of the Committee representing workers shall designate a member and/or alternate(s), if required, to participate in work refusals.  Senior Management and the Ministry of Labour will be informed in writing, the name of the workers so designated. The names of those safety representatives that will be the first choice for any work refusals that may come up.

2.10    A Joint Committee member who represents workers shall be consulted concerning proposed workplace testing strategies related to industrial hygiene.  A member of the Joint Committee shall be entitled to be present at the beginning of such testing. The choice of who will participate in the workplace testing will be determined by the committee should the need come up.



  • Management will provide or designate a secretary for the meeting to take minutes and be responsible for having the minutes typed, circulated and filed within 1 calendar week of the meeting, or as the Committee may from time to time instruct.  Minutes of meetings will be reviewed and edited where necessary by the Co-Chairpersons, then signed and circulated to all Committee Members and a copy forwarded to ABC Company before any broader circulation takes place.  Agenda items will be identified by a reference number and be readily available in a proper filing system.  Names of Joint Committee Member will not be used in the minutes except to record attendance.  (Sample attached).


  • The Joint Committee shall have a quorum of (50%) members present in order to conduct business.  One Co-Chairperson must be present in order to conduct business.  If a Co-Chairperson is absent, the other Co-Chairperson will chair the meeting.  The number of employer members shall not be greater than the number of worker numbers.
  • All time spent in attendance at Joint Committee meetings or in activities relating to the function of the Joint Committee will be paid for at the member’s current rate of pay for performing work, and the time spent is to be considered as time at work.
  • Joint Committee Members shall be allowed 1 hour of preparation time for each Committee Meeting, or longer as the Committee determines is necessary.


6.1       The Co-Chairpersons will prepare an agenda and forward a copy of the agenda to all Committee Members at least 1 week in advance of the meeting.

    • The Joint Committee may accept any item as proper for discussion and resolution pertaining to health and safety.  All items raised from the agenda in meetings will be dealt with on the basis of consensus rather than by voting.  Formal motions will not be used.
  • All items that are resolved or not will be reported in the minutes.  Unresolved items will be “minuted” and placed on the agenda for the next meeting.
  • Sample Agenda Attached.


  • All employees will be instructed to discuss their Health and Safety problems with their immediate supervisor before bringing it to the attention of the Joint Committee.
  • Joint Committee members will thoroughly investigate all complaints to get all the facts and will exchange these facts when searching for a resolution to the problem.  All problem resolutions will be reported in these minutes.
  • All Joint Committee Members will keep medical or trade secret information confidential.
  • Any amendments, deletions or additions to these Guidelines must have the consensus of the total Joint Committee and shall be set out in writing and attached as an Appendix to these Guidelines.

Please Note:  These Guidelines provide a framework for an effective functioning Joint Health and Safety Committee.  References can be made to the Occupational Health and Safety Act and its guidebook.

Employers must prepare and review at least a annually written Occupational Health and Safety Policy and must develop and maintain a program to implement that policy (Section 25(2)(j).  This should be accomplished in consultation with the Joint Health and Safety Committee.

We, the Joint Health & Safety Committee of ABC Company agree to the above listed Terms of Reference.

Signed at                                    __________________ Ontario, this ________ day of _________________ 2016.



FOR THE EMPLOYER:                                      FOR THE EMPLOYEES:

____________________________________         _____________________________________


Section 3               JOINT HEALTH & Safety Program



On occasion there may be situations that arise in the workplace, related to health and safety, that cannot be resolved by line management or require a business decision by the employer for resolution. If and when this condition arises the following procedure will be followed.

  1. A recommendation to the employer shall be prepared and documented by the health and safety committee and the Safety Coordinator.
  2. The recommendation shall detail the issue that requires attention along with options for resolution.
  3. The recommendation shall be signed and dated by the health and safety committee and safety coordinator and presented to the President for consideration.
  4. Only those items that cannot be resolved by line management will be recommended to the President for consideration.
  5. Items that do not fall into the health and safety budget and require funding beyond line management approval will be recommended to the President for consideration.
  6. Recommendations to the President shall be made as soon as possible or in some cases immediately if the item for consideration is of a high hazard rating.
  7. All recommendations to the President shall be submitted on the approved form along with any supporting documentation. Examples; accident, first aid reports, ministry recommendations.


  1. Once a recommendation has been formally presented to the President for consideration, the President shall respond to the recommendation on the approved form.
  2. Copies of the response will be given to the health and safety committee and the safety coordinator.
  3. If the President accepts the recommendation, a timeline for implementation will be identified in the response.
  4. If the President rejects the recommendation it will be identified why it was not accepted and the rational for rejection.
  5. Copies of recommendations and responses shall be posted on the health and safety notice board.

Note:  If a Health and Safety Committee makes a recommendation to the employer regarding health and safety improvements in the workplace, the employer has only 21 days to respond to the recommendations.


Accident/Incident Reporting


To provide a procedure to ensure that all accidents/incidents, injuries, near miss incidents and occupational illnesses are reported, investigated and corrective action taken to prevent recurrence.



  • Ensure that there are qualified persons to undertake investigations.
  • Ensure that accident investigation training programs are made available.

 Manager and Supervisors:

  • Investigate; identify corrective action with follow-up, document and report to the WSIB and Ministry of Labour the following accidents/incidents:
  • Workplace loss time accidents/incidents;
  • Workplace medical aid accidents/incidents;
  • Critical Injury Accidents.
  • Support and encourage employees to report all near miss incidents.
  • Forward a completed Accident Investigation Report to the Joint Health and Safety Committee and the Health and Safety Coordinator.


  • Report all accidents, no matter how minor, immediately to your Supervisor.

Joint Health and Safety Committee:

  • Review all accident reports for the purpose of identification of trends in accident causation.
  • Monitor statistics related to type of injury, location, departments, causal factors and any other information that is considered useful.
  • Review results with Manager and Supervisors
  • Prior to making any formal written recommendations, the JHSC must thoroughly investigate alternate solutions.
  • Ensure that a “certified member of the JHSC” investigate all critical injuries.


The following work related illnesses and injuries require investigation and reporting:

Lost Time Illness/Injury:

A work related illness/injury where off site medical attention is required and work time is lost beyond the day of injury. (Off site medical attention refers to Walk in Clinic, Emergency Department or Treating Physician).

Medical Aid:

A work related injury where off site medical attention is required but no time is lost from work other than the day of injury.

Occupational Illness:

A condition that results from exposure in a workplace to a physical, chemical or biological agent to the extent that the normal physiological mechanisms are affected and the health of the worker is impaired.

First Aid:

A work related injury that is defined as “any one treatment of minor scratches, cuts, burns, splinters and so forth, which can be treated by Certified First Aider”.

Near Miss:

An undesired event that could under different circumstances has resulted in an accident with injury, property damage, or loss of productivity.

Critical Injury:

A critical injury means an injury of a serious nature that:

  1. Places a life in jeopardy;
  2. Produces unconsciousness;
  3. Results in a substantial loss of blood;
  4. Involves the fracture of a leg or arm but not a finger or toe;
  5. Involves the amputation of a leg, arm, hand or foot but not a finger or toe;
  6. Consists of burns to a major portion of the body; or
  7. Causes the loss of sight in an eye.


  1. Upon being advised of an accident, injury, occupational injury, near miss or property damage the Manager or Supervisor must initiate an investigation including identifying root causes and taking corrective action to eliminate similar accidents or incidents.
  • The Manager or Supervisor may request assistance from a member of the JHSC when conducting the investigation.
  • The Manager or Supervisor must complete the Investigation Report and the Employer’s Report of Injury Form 7, within 3 days after learning of the occurrence.

NOTE: Copies of the Investigation Forms are available at the end of this section.

  • The Manager or Supervisor must notify the Ministry of Labour immediately upon learning of a critical injury.
  • The Manager or Supervisor must notify a “Certified Worker” Representative immediately upon learning of a critical injury.
  • When a Manager or Supervisor receives a written recommendation from the JHSC they must respond within 21 days of the date of the recommendation and ensure that the response shall contain the appropriate rationale for the decision.

Accident Investigations

Accident Investigation Reports

The following advice is offered to those who conduct accident investigations and complete the Incident reports:

  • Lack of Awareness” or “carelessness”, are often recorded on investigation reports as accident causes. These words provide and or contribute little to the investigation. The investigation report is included at the end of this section.
  • Completing the report may seem unmanageable at first, however, this will help motivate Managers and Supervisors to pay more attention to safety. Managers should support their Supervisors in completing the reports.
  • Involve employees in the investigation and possible corrective actions. They know their jobs best and can help determine root causes.
  • Accident causes should be prioritized, preventable solutions developed and approximate completion date established with follow-up in a timely manner.
  • Incident reports should be maintained on file and submitted to regulatory agencies where required.
  • All accident/incident reports are to be forwarded to the Health and Safety Coordinator.

Methods for Analyzing Accident Causes:

Accidents may be caused by unsafe acts or unsafe conditions. Each of these is analyzed below.

Unsafe Acts: Examples of unsafe acts include:

  • Operating/using equipment without authority.
  • Failure to secure against unexpected movement.
  • Working at unsafe speed.
  • Removing/making safety devices inoperative.
  • Using defective tools or equipment.
  • Taking unsafe posture or positions.
  • Servicing moving, energized, hazardous equipment.
  • Riding hazardous moving equipment.
  • Distracted, startled or horseplay.
  • Failure to wear personal protective equipment.

Once the investigation has determined the unsafe act, the causes of the unsafe act must also be determined. These are listed below:

  • Knowledge and skill deficiencies.
  • Conflicting motivations or attitudes.
  • Mental or physical abilities do not meet job requirements.
  • Lack of training.
  • Lack of safe work procedures.
  • Lack of supervision.
  • Inadequate staffing.


Unsafe Conditions

Unsafe conditions contribute significantly to the total of accidents. The major types of unsafe conditions are:

  • Lack of guards or safety devices.
  • Lack of adequate warning systems.
  • Unexpected movement hazards.
  • Fire and explosion hazards
  • Poor housekeeping.
  • Protruding objects.
  • Close clearance and congestion.
  • Environmental conditions.
  • Hazardous arrangement, placement or storage.
  • Defective tools and equipment.
  • Inadequate illumination, noise, heat.
  • Hazardous personal attire.

The contributing factors of unsafe conditions but are not limited to the following:

  • Actions of employees.
  • Actions of maintenance personnel.
  • Design and engineering.
  • Purchasing practices.
  • Normal wear and tear.
  • Lack of maintenance.



To be used to train Supervisors and members of the Joint Health and Safety Committee in Accident Investigations.  An “accident” can be defined as an unplanned event that interrupts the completion of an activity, and may (or may not) include injury and property damage.

Management’s reasons for the investigation of accidents and other incidents that could downgrade operations are logical and understandable.  It is not the logic of investigations that presents the major roadblocks to accomplishment of good investigations; it is the concern of time.  Most accident investigations do take the valuable time away from each person conducting the investigation and as a result of this, time management is very crucial and important.

The Manager is not the only one involved in the accident investigation, but he is the one who must assume an important immediate responsibility whenever an investigation occurs in his area.

The reasons of why a Manager/Supervisor should investigate an accident are as follows:

  1. He/She has a personal interest to protect:

Downgrading accidents can affect the safety, quality, production, and costs in his/her area and, as a result of this, must be involved in the prevention and control.

  • He/She knows most about people and conditions:

Since it is his/her area (employees, equipment, materials, and environment that he/she manages every day), he/she would know more about the daily activity and the conditions within that department than anyone else would.

  • He/She will take the action anyway:

After all, because it is his/her area, in the final analysis, anything that must be done will involve him anyway.  He/She is the one who will have to follow up anything that needs changing, correcting or doing.  It just makes sense that if he/she is on the investigation from the start, it’s better for him/her and for the people in the end.

  • He/She knows best of how to get the information:

A good Supervisor has established a spirit of cooperation with his/her own group, as well as with other support personnel.  He/She knows and understands the way each person thinks.  The Supervisor is aware that he/she will be working with them in the future and must maintain a relationship that encourages trust and confidence.  In fact, he/she has learned to communicate with his/her co-workers because he/she speaks their language.  If anyone can get people to tell it like it is”, it is his or her immediate supervisor.

  • Increases in production:

One of the main characteristics of a downgrading accident is that it interrupts work.  Time spent on good investigations today will increase the available time to produce work tomorrow, and will prevent a recurrence of accidents.  Effective accident investigations will eliminate and control the bottlenecks and causes of lost time involved with work interruptions.

  • Reduction in operating costs:

The costs of injuries, fire, delays and property damage can play an enormous role in determining whether a supervisor/manager has succeeded or failed to do his job well.  “Profit is the name of the game” and reduced accidents spell reduced operation costs and increased benefits for everyone.

Aside from the Manager and/or Supervisor’s involvement in the investigation of all accidents, the Safety Coordinator along with a worker member of the JH&SC should also be involved.

Both, the Safety Coordinator and worker JH&SC member can input valuable information and/or suggestions in the prevention of recurrences.  Additionally, the injured worker (if any) could be more at ease since he is represented by one of his peers.

Type of accidents that must be investigated:

  • Fatality or critical injury (see below for examples of critical injuries), refer to “Collecting the Facts – Physical Evidence” for Ministry of Labour notification.
  • Places life in jeopardy.
  • Produces unconsciousness.
  • Results in a substantial loss of blood.
  • Involves a fracture of leg or arm.
  • Involves an amputation of a leg, arm or foot.
  • Consists of major burns to the body.
  • Causes loss of sight.
  • Other accidents, etc… to be investigated:

–          Lost time injury or illness.

–          Medical aid or health care.

–          First aid treatments.

–          Every instance of fire or a fire extinguisher being discharged.

–          Chemical spills/releases.

–          All near-hits.

–          Acute and chronic occupational illnesses.

–          Property damage.



Ensuring that the Investigators are Impartial

An investigator who believes that accidents are caused by unsafe conditions will likely try to uncover conditions and causes.  On the other hand, one who believes they are caused by unsafe acts will attempt to find human errors that are caused.  Therefore it is necessary to examine some underlying factors in a chain of events that ends in an accident.

The important point is that even in the most seemingly straightforward accidents, seldom, if any, is there a single cause. For example, an investigation that concludes that an accident was due to worker carelessness, and goes no further, fails to seek answers to several questions:

  • Was the worker distracted?
  • Was a safe procedure followed?
  • Were safety devices in order?
  • Was the worker trained?

An inquiry that answers these questions will reveal conditions that are more open to correction than attempts to prevent carelessness.

The Reporting Process

The accident investigation involves the following steps:

  • Report the accident and its location to the immediate supervisor.
  • Provide first aid treatment and medical care to injured worker(s).
  • Investigate the accident.
  • Identify the causes.
  • Report the findings.
  • Develop a plan for corrective action.
  • Implement the plan.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the corrective action.
  • Make changes for continuous improvement.

As little time as possible should be lost between an accident or near miss and the start of an investigation.  This way, one is most likely to be able to observe the conditions as they were at the time, prevent disturbance of evidence, and identify all witnesses, if any.

What should be looked at as the cause of an accident?

  1. Task
  2. Was a safe procedure used?
  3. Had conditions changed to make the normal procedure unsafe?
  4. Were the appropriate tools and materials available?
  5. Were they used?
  6. Were safety devices working properly?
  • Material

To seek out the possible causes resulting from the equipment used, the investigating team might ask:

  • Was there an equipment failure?
  • What caused it to fail?
  • Was the machinery poorly designed?
  • Were hazardous substances involved?
  • Were they clearly identified?
  • Was personal protective equipment used?
  • Was it defective?

If any of the above questions reveal an unsafe condition, the investigative team must ask why this situation was allowed to continue, and by whom.

  • Environment

The physical environment, and especially sudden changes to the environment, is factors that need to be identified.  The situation at the time of the accident is what is important, not what the usual condition were.

  • Personal

The physical and mental conditions in those individuals directly involved in the accident must not be overlooked.  The purpose of investigating the accident is not to establish blame against someone, but the inquiry will not be complete unless personal characteristics are fully considered.  Some factors may remain constant, while others may vary from day to day:

  • Were workers experienced in the work being done?
  • Had they received proper training?
  • Can they physically perform their job?
  • What was the status of their health?
  • Were they tired?
  • Were they under stress (work or personal)?

5.         Management

Management holds the legal responsibility for the safety of the workplace and therefore the role of supervisors and upper management must always be considered in an accident investigation.  Answers to any of the preceding types of questions logically lead to further questions:

  • Was safety rule communicated and understood by all employees?
  • Were written procedures available and understood by all employees?
  • Did Supervisors/Managers enforce them?
  • Was the Supervisor a competent Supervisor?
  • Were workers properly trained to perform their job?
  • Had hazards been previously identified?
  • Had procedures been developed to overcome them?
  • Were unsafe conditions corrected?
  • Was regular maintenance carried out?
  • Were regular safety inspections carried out?

Collecting the Facts

The steps in an accident investigation are simple: gather information, analyze it, draw conclusions, and make recommendations.  Although the procedures are straight forward, each step can have its pitfalls. As a result of this, all possible causes should be considered.

  1. Injured Worker

The most important immediate task – rescue operations, medical treatment (if any), and prevention of further injuries – have priority, and others should not interfere with these activities.  When these matters are under control, a statement should be taken from the injured worker as to how the accident occurred, if possible.

  • Physical Evidence

Prior to attempting to gather any information, the accident site should be examined.  All steps should be taken to preserve evidence and all witnesses identified.  In a case where an accident caused a critical injury and/or fatality, the accident site must not be disturbed and a Ministry of Labour contacted immediately. Follow up report shall be sent to the Ministry of Labour within forty-eight hours after the occurrence. 

In this case, no one shall move or attempt to move any objects, materials, devices, guards, etc… except for the purpose of saving life or relieving human suffering, maintaining an essential public utility service, or preventing unnecessary damage to equipment and/or property.

Nevertheless, the investigation of the accident should continue by our investigating team.  Based on the knowledge of the processes within the company, the investigating team may want to check items such as:

  • Position of injured worker.
  • Equipment used.
  • Materials used.
  • Safety devices.
  • Position of appropriate guards.
  • Position of controls of machinery.
  • Damage to equipment.
  • Housekeeping of the area.
  • Environmental conditions.

Photograph should be taken prior to anything being moved, both of the general area and specific items, for further review and/or inquiry.

  • Eyewitness Accounts

Although there might be occasions when the investigators are unable to do so, every effort should be made to interview all witnesses.  In some situations, witnesses may be the primary source of information due to the investigators not being able to examine immediately the scene of an accident.

Interviews with all witnesses should be done alone, rather than in a group.  The investigators may decide to interview a witness at the scene of an accident where it is easier to establish the position of each person involved, and to obtain a description of the events.  On the other hand, it may be preferable to carry out interviews in a private, quiet location with fewer distractions.  This decision may depend on the nature of the accident and the mental state of the witness(s).

Interviews should be taken as soon as possible following the accident.  If witnesses have an opportunity to discuss the event among them, individual perceptions may be lost in the process.  As a result, a consensus might be reached amongst the witnesses rather than the actual facts.

  • Interviewing

The purpose of an interview is to establish an understanding with the witness, and to obtain his/her own words describing the event.

Do’s:               –     put the worker at ease

–     emphasize the real reason for the interview, to determine what happened and why

  • let the witness talk
  • confirm that his/her statement is correct by repeating the statement
  • make short notes only during the interview

Don’ts             –     intimidate the witness in any way

  • interrupt
  • ask leading questions
  • show your own emotions
  • make lengthy notes

Open-ended questions should be asked which couldn’t be answered with either “YES” or “NO”. The actual questions asked would vary with each accident, but certain ones should be asked each time.  They are as follows:

  • Where were you at the time?
  • What were you doing at the time?
  • What did you see or hear?
  • What were the environmental conditions at the time?
  • What was the injured worker doing at the time?
  • In your opinion, what caused the accident?
  • How might a similar accident be prevented in the future?

Answers to some of the above questions will generally show how well the witness actually observed what happened.

  • Background Information

All documents such as technical data sheets, maintenance records, past accidents, formalized work procedures, and training report should be analyzed prior to making any recommendations to prevent recurrence of similar accidents.

The Final Report

Once all the facts are known, the Manager/Supervisor shall complete the Accident/Incident Investigation Report.  The Manager should realize that the measure of a good accident report is quality, not quantity.

Recommendations to prevent similar injury/damage should be stated on the report and acted upon as soon as possible.

The final report shall be signed and dated by the investigating Manager/Supervisor.  A copy of said report shall be forwarded to the Safety Coordinator and Senior Management for review (any diagrams/photographs should also be included – no photocopies). 

Additionally, time permitting, the Manager/Supervisor shall meet with all of his employees and inform them of the accident, identifying primary and secondary causes (if any), identifying primary and secondary unsafe actions (if any), and recommendations to prevent injury (if any).  

The Manager/Supervisor shall keep record of said meeting on file.  Copy of the minutes should be forwarded to the Safety Coordinator.

Review of Accident/Incident Reports at JH&SC Meetings

All Accident/Incident investigation Reports shall be reviewed by the Joint Health and Safety Committee and communicated to workers through the minutes of the Committee.

Accident Analysis

During each meeting the Joint Health and Safety Committee should review any accidents that occurred since the previous meeting. This will allow the identification of trends in accident causation. To achieve this, the committee should monitor statistics related to the type of injury, location, departments, casual factors and any other information that is considered useful. The Manager should also review this result.




Section 1   
Facility or Job siteDepartment
  Exact location of the Accident / Incident  Date of Occurrence  Time  Date reported.
  Person reporting Incident  Occupation  Costs if any  Date of report
Names of witness’s
            Please complete attached witness statement to this report.
  Section 2                                  General Information
Injured person nameOccupationPart of body injuredNature of injury/ illness
  Object/ equipment/ substance inflecting  Person with most control of item
Was injured person taken to hospital?  Which Hospital  How was worker transported  Name of those who attended
  Section 3                                     Property Damage
  Property DamagedEstimated costsActual costs  Nature of Damage

Section 4            DESCRIPTION OF ACCIDENT / INCIDENT Describe clearly how the incident occurred:
                  Attach additional information to this report and label as Section 4.1
  Section 5 – Analysis of Causes Please describe what immediate causes or what substandard acts or conditions contributed directly to this incident.
                            Attach additional information to this report and label as Section 5.1
  Section 6 – Analysis of Causes as listed previously. What personal factors were basic causes of this incident, please explain.
              Attach additional information to this report and label as Section 6.1Inadequate CapabilityLack of KnowledgeLack of skillPhysical or mental stressImproper motivation

  Section 7 – What Job Factors were basic causes of this incident? Please explain
                                          Attach additional information to this report and label as Section 7.1Inadequate engineeringInadequate Tools or equipmentInadequate purchasingWear & TearContractor ActivityImproper work method or standardInadequate DirectionInadequate maintenanceAbuse or misuseVandalism or sabotage  
  Section 8- Evaluation of Potential if not corrected  Major  Serious  Minor
  Section 9 – Probability of Recurrence  Frequent  Occasional  Seldom
  Section 10                                            Prevention
Action Plan—What has or should be done to prevent similar loss?
                  Attach additional information to this report and label as Section 10.1
Name of Investigator Title Date: 
  Reviewed by:   Title   Date 
Copies to:OwnerJHSC/ Safety rep.Supervisor
  Injured worker.Health & Safety notice board

Section 11-  Witness Statements:
  Witness Name:   Location at time of incident/ accident 
  Activity at the time of the incident/ accident 
  In their own words, describe what you saw, heard.
  Witness Name:   Location at time of incident/ accident 
  Activity at the time of the incident/ accident 
  In their own words, describe what you saw, heard.
  Witness Name:   Location at time of incident/ accident 
  Activity at the time of the incident/ accident 
  In their own words, describe what you saw, heard.


As part of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, it defines a critical injury means an injury of a serious nature that:

  • places a life in jeopardy;
  • produces unconsciousness;
  • results in a substantial loss of blood;
  • involves the fracture of a leg or arm but not a finger or toe;
  • involves the amputation of a leg, arm, hand or foot but not a finger or toe;
  • consists of burns to a major portion of the body; or
  • causes the loss of sight in an eye.

If any of the above exist you must do the following:

TaskDate/timeCompleted byComments
Get the injured worker immediately to the hospital, assign someone to stay with the worker.   
Secure the scene of the accident shut of any equipment, cordon off the area with caution/ fluorescent tape. Do not allow the scene to be disturbed. See note below regarding scene preservation.   
Notify the owner, H&S Coordinator and members of the JHSC.  Ensure the Employer has notified the Ministry of Labour Inspector.   
JHSC members and the supervisor on duty at the time of the accident must complete an accident investigation.   
Accident investigation must be completed and faxed to the Ministry of Labour within 48 hrs of the accident. Copy to____________________   
Complete and send Form 7 to the WSIB within 72 hrs.   
Employee to compete the employee incident form.   
Employee to take Functional Abilities Form to Physician to complete.  Ensure consent form is signed.  Send modified work description with employee for Physician to review.   
Complete the return to work with employee.   

Occupational Health &Safety Act Section 51 (2) Where a person is killed or is critically injured at a workplace, no person shall, except for the purpose of,

(a) saving life or relieving human suffering;

(b) maintaining an essential public utility service or a public transportation system; or

(c) preventing unnecessary damage to equipment or other property, interfere with, disturb, destroy, alter or carry away any wreckage, article or thing at the scene of or connected with the occurrence until permission so to do has been given by an inspector. R.S.O. 1990, c. O.1, s. 51.

Copy of this form to be sent to:


Workplace Inspections


Workplace inspections help prevent injuries and illnesses.  Through critical examination of the workplace, inspections identify and record hazards for corrective action.  The Joint Health and Safety Committees shall plan, conduct, report and monitor all inspections.  Regular workplace inspections are an important part of the overall Health and Safety Program.


As an essential part of the Program, Committee members examine the workplace to:

  • listen to concerns of workers and supervisors,
  • gain further understanding of jobs and tasks,
  • identify existing and potential hazards,
  • determine underlying causes of hazards,
  • monitor hazards  (personal protective equipment, engineering controls, policies, procedures, etc…), and
  • recommend corrective action(s).

Every inspection must examine who, what, where, when and how.  Special attention must be given to items that will most likely develop unsafe or unhealthy conditions due to stress, wear, impact, vibration, heat, corrosion, chemical reaction or misuse.   All areas must be inspected monthly, including the offices.

While performing the inspection, look at all workplace elements:

  • environment (noise, vibration, lighting, temperature, and ventilation),
  • equipment (materials, tools and apparatus for producing a product or a service), and
  • process (how the worker interacts with the other elements in a series of tasks or operations).

Types of workplace hazards include:

  • safety hazards (machine guarding, unsafe work conditions, unsafe work practices, etc…),
  • biological hazards (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites),
  • chemical hazards (caused by solid, liquid, gas, dust or mist),
  • ergonomic hazard (caused by anatomical, physiological and psychological demands on the worker),
  • physical hazards (noise, vibration, energy, weather, heat, cold, electricity, radiation and pressure).

 Items needed for inspection

  1. Checklists

A checklist helps to clarify inspection responsibilities, controls inspection activities and provides a report of inspection activities.  Checklists permit easy on-the-spot recording of findings and comments.

  • Reports

Past inspection records should be used to show what has been identified in previous inspections and what corrective action has been taken (if any).  Repeated items must be noted on the new inspection report.

  • Chemical Inventory

Ensure that Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are available for the chemicals being used in the workplace; the MSDS’s must be current (less than three years).  Make sure that all actual and potential sources of chemical exposure (if any) are properly controlled, and that all chemicals are properly labeled as per WHMIS requirements.

  • Equipment Inventory

Review technical safety data sheets, or manufacturers’ safety manuals, prior to inspection, to become familiar with the injury and illness potential of the equipment.

  • Diagram of the Area

Use drawings of plant layout, or floor plans to assist with the inspection.

Schedule of an Inspection

Nobody can accurately estimate how long each inspection will take.  The time required depends on what is found, how many questions are asked, and how large and complex the work area is.  Inspections are ineffective when the given time allows for only a hasty look.

The inspections should take place once a month and conducted by the JH&SC.  Records of infractions/problems must be recorded.  All areas of the facility must be inspected.

How Are Inspections Done

The Planned Inspection route should be discussed prior to undertaking it, including what is going to be inspected.  Each member of the JH&SC that is inspecting the area should have a clipboard or note pad, and a checklist for the area to be inspected.  They also should be allowed to proceed at their own pace.

For inspections, wear personal protective equipment (PPE) where required.  If PPE is not available, the area should not be inspected until PPE is obtained.  During the inspection, maintenance personnel should be available to provide information on special equipment or processes.  Also, the JH&SC may invite Managers and Supervisors to join them in the inspection to help in examining certain aspects of work area.

Supervisors and Managers are responsible for taking action to prevent accidents and injury.  They have an advantage in safety inspections due to their familiarity with workers, equipment and environment.  This familiarity can also act as a disadvantage; interfere with objectivity.  Before inspecting the area, the JH&SC shall contact the General Manager.  The inspection team must remain independent and uninfluenced observations.

If the Supervisor and/or Manager do not accompany the inspection team, he/she shall be contacted prior to leaving the area.  All items that can be immediately corrected should be relayed to the Supervisor/ Manager at that time.  These must be stated on the report as reported and corrected (include corrective action taken; if any). 

Additionally, Senior Management should also inspect the areas semi-annually.

When conducting an inspection, these basic principles should be followed:

  • Draw attention to the presence of any immediate danger.
  • Ask the operator for a demonstration (if there is a hazard); the inspecting team should not operate the equipment.
  • Be methodical and thorough; look inside, up, down and around.
  • Clearly describe each hazard and location.
  • Ask questions, but do not disrupt work activities.
  • Consider the static and dynamic conditions of the items inspected (should the equipment to be inspected be shut down, postpone the inspection until it is functioning again).
  • Discuss as a group “can any problems, hazards, or accidents generate from this situation when looking at the equipment, process and environment”.
  • Take a photograph if unable to clearly identify and/or explain particular hazard.
  • Observe common work practices such as:
  • using machinery or tools,
  • removing guards or other safety devices, or rendering them ineffective,
  • using defective tools or equipment, or using tools and equipment in unsafe ways,
  • overloading cranes an tow motors,
  • repairing equipment and tools that are in motion, under pressure, or electrically charged,
  • failing to use or maintain, or improperly using, PPE or safety devices,
  • standing or working under suspended loads, and
  • creating unsafe, unsanitary, or unhealthy working conditions by improper personal hygiene, by using compressed air for cleaning clothing, by poor housekeeping, or by smoking in unauthorized area.

The Final Report

To make a report, ensure that all unfinished items from previous inspections are noted on the new report.  Record all new information in consecutive order including hazard classification.  State exactly what has been detected and accurately identify its location and corrective action taken and/or recommended.

Ensure that a priority level to each hazard observed has been assigned to indicate the urgency of corrective action required:

  • A – Major (requires immediate action).
  • B – Serious (requires short-term action).
  • C – Minor (requires long-term action).

Following this, make management aware of the problems in a concise factual way.  Management should be able to understand and evaluate the problems, assign priorities and quickly reach decisions. Immediate action should be taken as needed.  When permanent correction takes time, temporary measures should be taken, such as roping off the area to limit access, tagging equipment or posting sign.

The finished copy should be reviewed for accuracy, clarity and thoroughness.  Additionally, the final report should state who inspected the area, date and time of the inspection and who should receive additional copies for corrective action and information.

The Follow-Up

All information should be reviewed from planned inspections to identify where immediate corrective action is needed.  Trends shall be identified and timely feedback obtained.  The analysis of the inspection report may show the following:

  • priorities for corrective action,
  • the need for improving safe work practices,
  • the insight about why accidents are occurring in particular areas,
  • need for training, and
  • area and equipment that require more in-depth hazard analysis.

The JH&SC should retain a copy of each inspection and review it at the next JH&SC meeting.  It is also the committee’s responsibility to study the information from these inspection reports and review progress of the recommendations, especially when they pertain to the education and training of employees.   By doing this, it will help in identifying trends for the maintenance of an effective Health and Safety Program.

Other Types of Inspections

  1. Ongoing:

Supervisors and workers continually conduct inspections as part of their job responsibilities. Such inspections identify hazardous conditions and either correct them immediately or report them for corrective action.  The frequency of these inspections varies with amount and conditions of equipment use.  Daily checks by users assure that the equipment meets minimum acceptable safety requirements.

  • Pre-Operation:

Pre-operation checks involve inspections of new or modified equipment or processes.  Often these are done after workplace shutdowns.

  • Qualifications of Inspecting Team
  • knowledge of previous injuries and illnesses in the workplace,
  • familiarity with the equipment and its hazards,
  • knowledge and understanding of the standards, regulations, PPE, and procedures that apply to the area,
  • ability and skills to assess situations requiring corrective action,
  • knowledge of area’s operations, work flow, systems and products, and
  • proper attitudes and influences to bring about improvements


Location:  Date of Meeting:
  Time of Meeting:  Place of Meeting:
Sent to: Invited Guest(s): 
Agenda Topic: Review of previous minutes from last meetingTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:        
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Accidents or incidents since our last meetingTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:        
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Review First Aid LogTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:        
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Review this months safety inspection report from worker repTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:      
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Review any Safety inspections from managers/ supervisors and review of Recommendations to EmployersTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:      
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Reviewed elements of our safety programTime Required:  
Section Reviewed:      
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:        
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #
Agenda Topic: Other BusinessTime Required:  
Is Action Required      YES  or   NO Describe:        
Who is responsible?By when.
Has a Hazard / Recommendation form been created?   YES     NO      If yes ID #

Those in attendance please print your name and sign that you have reviewed the above safety meeting items and agree that it is a true reflection of the meeting activities.

For the Employer;For the workers
Employers signature;  Date;

Copies to all members of the JHSC, Employer, to be posted on the Health & Safety Notice Board. 

Any person who has any questions or concerns about any item discussed during our safety meetings are encouraged to speak to a safety rep or your supervisor.


Date When Hazard Was First identified:   Recommendation #Who identified the hazard?     Their position:
Today’s Date:
Who will be notified of this hazard?JHSCDepartment managerOther: ____________H&S        Coordinator WorkersEmployer Ministry of  Labour  
Location of the Hazard 
Description of the hazard   
Rating of the hazardABC
Class “A” Hazard:  Serious hazard requiring immediate attention (Stop Work) Class “B” Hazard:  Hazard requiring attention as soon as possible. Class “C” Hazard:  Hazard requiring attention.
Corrective Action Taken   
By Who:When: 
Date completed:Is further action required?  
Employer’s Signature:JHSC Members Signatures:    

Recommendations to the Manager or Employer regarding this Hazard (circle)

Date Recommendation is made to manager or employer:Response must be made by:    
Is this recommendation a requirement of OHSA, Standard, best practice? 
Our recommendation:   
Employers response:     
To be done by: Follow up by: 
To be copied to: